India was invaded by the British East India Company in 1757. Later, the British Crown and the East India company ruled India through Britishers as their puppet rulers.
When the British came to India, they found a country with a rich history of civilizations, along with a diverse population and a high degree of literacy. India was one of the cradles of civilization, with its most famous contributions being the Vedas and the Upanishads. However, India remained mostly under British rule until 1947, when it became independent and moved toward self-rule.
Modern Indian History
Colonial domination before independence
The arrival of the British in India
Modern Indian history as a whole refers to the period of colonial rule in India. The arrival of the British in Indian territory in the 17th century can be conventionally described as the beginning of the modern era in Indian history. For two centuries the British completely subjugated the Indian territory until the fiery inferno of the freedom fighters forced them to retreat. The two hundred years of their rule not only influenced politics and the economy, but also brought about important changes in education, society and customs.
Arrival of Vasco da Gama
However, the British were not the first foreign powers to set foot on Indian soil. At the end of the 15th century, the Portuguese mariner Vasco da Gama reached Calicut, in southern India. Since then, the French, Dutch and then British colonizers have undertaken expeditions to India, a land of immense wealth and possessions. In the 19th century, the British Empire in India had already recognized their supremacy. The huge Indian territory is characterized by a total lack of unity among the independent rulers, of which the British have taken full advantage. This problem became even more acute after the fall of the Mughal dynasty in 1739 and the continuing rivalry between the various ruling houses in the Indian provinces to establish their supremacy independently. Among the most influential ruling clans in India at the time were the Marathas, Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the Nawabs of Bengal and the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh. The British encouraged unbridled commercial exploitation to achieve their supremacy, and the annexation policy of the British East India Company quickly solidified the manipulation of the British Empire as the ultimate power.
Although the British spared no expense to put pressure on the Indian people, they also helped bring about some changes in education, culture and society. It was mainly a foretaste of their cultural imperialist plans. Macaulay, a distinguished member of the Governor-General’s Council, in his minutes (1835) scorned the sacred writings and the wealth of information of which India was fond, and urged the introduction of English education, which he considered excellent and obligatory for the education of the barbarous Indians. However, eminent pedagogues like Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar played an important role in infiltrating the intellectual tendencies of western education into ancient Indian writings and literary works. This was in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It was in the 19th century that prominent educational institutions like Hindu College and President’s College were established in Bengal. This era is often called the Bengali Renaissance. However, the spread of education went hand in hand with the spread of Christian doctrines, and Christian missionaries were given the task of spreading education.
Social services and social activists
The roots of women’s education were laid by Vidyasagar who established about 30 schools for women in Bengal. Social reformers like Ram Mohan Roy were instrumental in abolishing sati (1829) or the tradition of women giving their lives at the stake of their husbands. In 1856, the British government passed the Widows’ Marriage Act under the auspices of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Fighting the British
The 19th century witnessed mass struggles and peasant uprisings against the British colonizers. Unable to resist the wiles of the British, the Indian people took up arms against the colonizers. The Indigo Rebellion of 1860, the Santhala Rebellion (1855-56), and the Deccan Rebellion (1875) are some of the better-known peasant movements, and these protests eventually culminated in the 1857 uprising, traditionally called the Sepoy Mutiny. Among the most important leaders of the nationalist struggle in the 19th century. Twentieth-century artists include Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi and Tatya Tope. This nationalist momentum was further strengthened by the birth of the Indian National Congress in 1885. During this period, many literary works were written and performed to condemn the actions of the British against the Indians. Legal measures have been taken against this production: The Drama Act (1876) and the Vernacular Press Act (1878) restricted the freedom of the press. The proposed partition of Bengal in 1905 was the straw that broke the camel’s back for the sovereignty of Indian citizens.
Fight for independence
The nationalist struggle of the 20th century The 20th century was led by prominent personalities like Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Bhagat Singh, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Khudiram Bose, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi. A number of nationalist groups such as the Khilafat movement, the non-cooperation movement, the civil disobedience movement and the Indian withdrawal movement have taken up the call for freedom. Finally, in August 1947, after centuries of dynamic struggle, India achieved its independence and freed itself from the shackles of British colonial rule. The partition of India is completed and Pakistan is established on its northwestern border. Jawaharlal Nehru was sworn in as the first Prime Minister of independent India and the country was recognized as a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic with the adoption of the Constitution of India.
Frequently Asked Questions
How did India become independent?
The term “independent” was very important in the evolution of India. The word was first used by the then British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, during World War I. He used it to refer to the new independent nation, then known as the “The Dominion of India”, newly formed from the British Indian provinces. It was adopted by the United Kingdom as a political term, and India was granted independence from it in 1947 on the 15th of August. India has been a country since the Indus Valley Civilization, which was established in the fourth millennium BC in present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. The first recorded contact with the outside world occurred in 327 BC when Alexander the Great crossed the Indian Ocean in his invasion of the Persian Empire. By the time of the British raj, the country had a vast array of languages and thousands of different cultures, religions, and castes.
What is the modern history of India?
India is today a sovereign nation, and a member of the United Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations. It is the largest democracy in the world. It is the 6th largest country by geographical area in the world. It is the 2nd most populous country in the world. It is the largest country by population in South Asia. India has the world’s 2nd largest economy by nominal GDP and 5th largest by per capita GDP. India is one of the oldest and most populous countries, it was formed in 1947 after british India. In 1947, India became independent from the british rule. It was also called British India. The british India was the successor to the East India Company and the British government, and it existed from 1858 to 1947.
What was the name of independent India between August 15 1947 to January 26 1950 before it became the Republic of India this question is required *?
This question is required *?the British Viceroy of India from 1936 to August 15, 1947 was Lord Linlithgow. On that day, he handed over power to the first Prime Minister of the newly independent (India) state, Jawaharlal Nehru. Before that, the British had taken India under their control in 1858. This text is sensitive. Try generating new copy.
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